Other Methods of Instructional Delivery
D.P. Ausubel's Instructional Model
Deductive vs Inductive Teaching Style
Instructional Technique Definitions
The demonstration is an instructional strategy which explains by concrete means a concept, a fact, or problem. These sorts of activities may involve the use of living specimens, models, objects, charts, slides, pictures and/or pieces of equipment.
This method calls for teaching strategies that establish conditions, which make discovery possible. The student is provided with freedom and resources to find things out for him or herself rather than having them explained to him by the teacher. The discovery method employs controlled procedures to lead to predicted results.
The simulation of economic, historical, political and social problems and issues through the playing of realistic games is another method of involving the student in the teaching-learning process. Realism, authentic simulation, decision-making, and derivation of generalizations are key concepts in gaming. Gaming requires decision-making, so vital to the realities of the content of the social disciplines. A game, however, must be an integral part of the subject matter; it is not an end in itself. It is not just a good-times adventure, a play or a substitute for thinking.
A method by which a student, alone or working with others attempts to solve problems and develops concepts and skills by observing, stating the problems, hypothesizing, testing the hypothesis, and concluding or generalizing.
The lecture method refers to the clarification or explanation of a major idea. It is a form of exposition, which makes extensive use of narrative and description. Lecturing is often considered the most effective and efficient method of presenting the same information to a large group of students. This method requires the teacher to do the talking (telling) and the students to do the listening.
Readiness for learning from the lecture method includes a repertoire of the following “learning to learn” skills:
The ability to focus on the business at hand through consciously screening out unrelated distractions;
Skill in “active”, “reconstructive” listening - i.e., alertly decoding the lecturer's expressed ideas through associating, relating, accepting, rejecting, analyzing, speculating, and connecting them to previously learned materials;
Writing in note form (i.e., abbreviated clauses, phrases, key-words) the dominant ideas and important facts;
Translating and converting the information into synonymous and analogous terms for multiple-retrieval storage; and
Systemically and periodically modifying, amending, reviewing, and synthesizing lecture notes for reinforcement, reorganization, and recategorization into the larger context as the course develops. (Newton, 1983 p. 20)
The recitation method requires an interaction between the students and the teacher. It is a method, which requires preparation on the part of all involved. This strategy allows the teacher to raise questions which keep the students actively involved in interpretation, criticism, supplementation and application of the material previously studied. Recitation is viewed as a means to promote critical, creative, reflective, and analytical thinking on the part of the students.
This strategy places students in a situation where they must see and defend a viewpoint different from their own. Role-playing can be combined with problem stories, problem pictures, and dramatization to make effective social situations in which students develop values and understandings.
In simulations, a real environment is reproduced as accurately as possible. This type of instruction provides the students with experiences within the framework of the school which they will, at some time, be exposed to in the real world. It is particularly useful in teaching vocational courses and the social sciences.
The socio-drama is a type of role-playing which deals with social problems. Only the general plot of a socio-drama is preplanned. The actors experience the situation they are role-playing in the very creative sense in that they make up the plot as they go along. In this situation, students bring past experiences to a new problem.
Definitions taken from a handout distributed by Felder.