Music- Dr. Holzer

Guide to Citations

Foreign words: In general, foreign words are italicized (e.g., allegro molto), unless they have become common in standard English usage (e.g., cafe, etude, sonata). See Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Or consult other accepted style manual for college papers.

Titles: Titles of complete compositions are usually italicized; titles of separate movements within a composition should typically be placed in quotation marks when they are in English. Titles that are foreign words are italicized. See Turabian.

  • "Hallelujah Chorus" from Handel's oratorio, Messiah.
  • Second movement, Andante con moto, from Beethoven's Piano Sonata, Opus 57.
  • The aria, Donde lieta uscì from Puccini's opera, La Boheme.
  • The song, Lost Your Head Blues, by Bessie Smith

"Generic" titles of works—that is, works identified by a genre or form (usually with some number, or a key, or both)—are capitalized: Brahms's Symphony No. 4 in E Minor, Op. 98; Chopin's Nocturne in E Flat Major, Op. 9, No. 2; Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 23 in A Major, K.#488.

"Nongeneric" titles of works—that is, actual titles rather than a numbered genre or form—are set in italic (or underlined; remember that, as noted above, underlining is the equivalent of italic). Examples are titles of songs, oratorios, operas, symphonic poems, and ballets: Gershwin's I Got Rhythm, Handel's Messiah, Mozart's Don Giovanni, Smetana's The Moldau, Stravinksy's Petrushka.

" Nicknames" of works with generic titles are italic. They are placed in parentheses when they appear with the full title, but they may also be used in place of the full title. Examples are: Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (Pathétique), and Haydn's Symphony No. 94 in G Minor (Surprise); the Pathétique Sonata, the Surprise Symphony.

Some titles combine a generic part and a nongeneric part. Examples: Bizet's L'Arlésienne Suite No. 2, Machaut's Notre Dame Mass.

Documentation of Facts, or When to Use Citations
The information below is adapted from the Vanier College Music Department Guidelines for Research Papers in Music History

There are three classifications of facts, for our purposes in this course:

(a) Common knowledge - facts that are readily accessible in most standard reference works, and hence generally known to anyone at all conversant with the subject. Statements of fact from the realm of common knowledge are usually not cited in endnotes (i.e. If the student writes in an academic paper, "Rome is the capital of Italy," it is not necessary to cite a dictionary for this fact. It is common knowledge.)

(b) Special knowledge - facts mentioned by only one or a few persons, such as specialists or experts, and hence not generally known. Statements of fact from someone else's fund of special knowledge must always be credited, cited in endnotes or footnotes. (i.e. If the student writes in the research paper, "The national monthly publication, Smithsonian magazine includes a feature article on Emily Carr entitled, "Canada's National Treasure" in a recent issue." The endnote would cite the article:
Bennett Schiff, "Canada's National Treasure," Smithsonian (March 1999), pp. 102-111.

Another example of special knowledge is a direct quotation, which should also be cited in an endnote or footnote.)

(c) Personal knowledge - facts which the student writer has observed for him- or herself, which may agree with, or supplement, or even contradict the findings of common knowledge and special knowledge. An endnote citation is not required if your statement of fact is personal opinion.

Program Notes
Program notes in a printed concert program typically name the author of the notes. If you make a direct quotation of the program notes, it should be cited in an endnote or footnore.


Schröder-Nauenburg, Beate. Program notes to Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 7. Performed by the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra, 2010.

Based on Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed., rev. John Grossman and Alice Bennett (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).