words: In general, foreign words are italicized (e.g., allegro
molto), unless they have become common in standard English usage
(e.g., cafe, etude, sonata). See Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for
Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Or consult other
accepted style manual for college papers.
Titles: Titles of complete compositions are usually
italicized; titles of separate movements within a composition should
typically be placed in quotation marks when they are in English. Titles
that are foreign words are italicized. See Turabian.
Chorus" from Handel's oratorio, Messiah.
movement, Andante con moto, from Beethoven's Piano Sonata,
aria, Donde lieta uscì from Puccini's
opera, La Boheme.
song, Lost Your Head Blues, by Bessie Smith
of works—that is, works identified by a genre or form (usually
with some number, or a key, or both)—are capitalized: Brahms's
Symphony No. 4 in E Minor, Op. 98; Chopin's Nocturne in E Flat Major,
Op. 9, No. 2; Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 23 in A Major, K.#488.
"Nongeneric" titles of works—that is, actual titles rather than
a numbered genre or form—are set in italic (or underlined; remember that,
as noted above, underlining is the equivalent of italic). Examples are titles
of songs, oratorios, operas, symphonic poems, and ballets: Gershwin's I Got
Rhythm, Handel's Messiah, Mozart's Don Giovanni, Smetana's The
Moldau, Stravinksy's Petrushka.
Nicknames" of works with generic titles are italic. They are placed in
parentheses when they appear with the full title, but they may also be used
in place of the full title. Examples are: Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C Minor,
Op. 13 (Pathétique), and Haydn's Symphony No. 94 in G Minor
(Surprise); the Pathétique Sonata, the Surprise Symphony.
Some titles combine a generic part and a nongeneric part. Examples: Bizet's L'Arlésienne Suite
No. 2, Machaut's Notre Dame Mass.
of Facts, or When to Use Citations
The information below is adapted from the Vanier College Music Department
for Research Papers in Music History
There are three classifications of facts, for our purposes in this course:
(a) Common knowledge - facts that
are readily accessible in most standard reference works, and hence generally
known to anyone at all conversant with the subject. Statements of fact
from the realm of common knowledge are usually not cited in endnotes
(i.e. If the student writes in an academic paper, "Rome is the
capital of Italy," it is not necessary to cite a dictionary for
this fact. It is common knowledge.)
(b) Special knowledge - facts mentioned
by only one or a few persons, such as specialists or experts, and hence
not generally known. Statements of fact from someone else's fund of
special knowledge must always be credited, cited in endnotes or footnotes.
(i.e. If the student writes in the research paper, "The national
monthly publication, Smithsonian magazine includes a feature
article on Emily Carr entitled, "Canada's National Treasure"
in a recent issue." The endnote would cite the article:
Schiff, "Canada's National Treasure," Smithsonian
(March 1999), pp. 102-111.
Another example of special knowledge is a direct quotation, which should
also be cited in an endnote or footnote.)
(c) Personal knowledge - facts which
the student writer has observed for him- or herself, which may agree
with, or supplement, or even contradict the findings of common knowledge
and special knowledge. An endnote citation is not required if your statement
of fact is personal opinion.
notes in a printed concert program typically name the author of the notes.
If you make a direct quotation of the program notes, it should be cited
in an endnote or footnore.
Beate. Program notes to Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 7.
Performed by the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra, 2010.
on Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses,
and Dissertations, 6th ed., rev. John Grossman and Alice Bennett (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1996).