__Part
1: Conversion Factors__

Allow
a measurement to be transformed from one scale to another.

Three
Basic Types

A. Different prefixes of same base scale (cm -> Km

B. Conversions between scales (cm -> in)

C. Physical
Constants d=M/V

__A.
Different Prefixes of same base scale.__

Basic Technique: Set up two
equivelence statements

How
many micrograms are in a kilogram?

Set up conversion factors
based on an equivalence statements.

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Example: Convert 32.4 ng to Mg.

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Problems: Solve the following:

1.) 56.4Tbytes = ___Mbytes

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2.) 34.6nsec = ___Gsec

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3.) 4.0Mg = ___ kg

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Advanced
Technique: Set up 1 equivalence statement

How
many micrograms are in a kilogram?

Set up a conversion factor
based on an equivalence statement.

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Use the ratio which has the
starting unit in the denominator and ending unit in the numerator.

Use (a.) to convert kilograms to micrograms

(b.) to convert micrograms to kilograms

Example: Convert 32.4 ng to Mg.

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Conversion
Factors and Scientific Notation

Convert
3.57x10^{14} ml to ml

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Problems: Solve the following

1.) Convert 4.337x10^{14}
Tl to ml

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2.) Convert 4.78x10^{24}
fg to Mg

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3.) Convert 2.00x10^{-4}
msec to psec

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B.
Conversions between different scales:

YOU MUST SHOW WORK AS SOME CALCULATORS
AUTOMATICALLY DO CONVERSIONS

You
need equivalence statements between different units.

KNOW: 2.54cm=1in
(exact) (Metric
length to English Length)

1ml = 1cm^{3} (Metric volume to Metric length cubed)

Note*
Many of these are not exact, see back cover of book.

How
many dm are in an object which is 2.45 feet long?

given 12in = 1 ft,

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How many gallons are in a cuboid
can that is 2.05 ft wide, 12.4 inches long and 1.30 yards deep?

Given: 4 qt = 1 gal,
1.057qt=1L, 12in = 1 ft, 3 ft = 1 yd:

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Problems:

1.) How many square inches are in a rectangle
which is 3.24ft by 2.67 yd?

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2.) How many cubic inches are in 1.00 mL?

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3.) How many cubic feet are in 1.00 TL?

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4.) How many kL are in a cube which is 3.24x10^{21}mm
on each side?

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5.) How many square inches are in a rectangle
which is 1.75x10^{11}mm by 7.34x10^{-13}km

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6.) How many mL are in an cuboid that is 2.00x10^{21}mm
by 3.00x10^{2}yard by 5.00x10^{18}ft?

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C. Physical Constants

These are typically measured and have significant digits.

__Density:__ Allows
conversion from Mass to Volume.

D=M/V

How many pounds does
the above container weight at a given temperature if water has a density of
0.98g/mL?

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Note the answer has 2 significant digits because of the density

Problems:

1.) If the density of gold is 19.3g/ml,
what is it in lb/in^{3}?

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2.) What is the mass a cubic
foot of mercury (d_{Hg}=13.6 g/ml), consider it to be 1.00 ft on each
side

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3.) Osmium is the densest
natural element with a density of 22.61 g/ml. What would be the mass of 1.00
gallon of osmium?

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4.) What volume of water would
have the same mass as 1.00 gallon of osmium?

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5.) What is the density of water
in lb/in^{3}?

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Specific Gravity: The specific
gravity is the ration of the density of one substance to another. One of the advantages of specific gravity is
that it has the same value, not matter what units were used in calculating it.

1.) Using densities in units of
g/ml, calculate the specific gravity of gold?

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2.) Calculate the specific gravity of gold from densities in units of
lb/in^{3} (question 1 and 5 above).

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__Part
2 Temperature Conversion and equation for a straight line__

T_{C}
= T_{K} - 273.15

Convert
98.6^{o}F to C^{o} and K.

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What
is Absolute Zero in Fahrenheit?

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Problems:

1. El Azizia ^{o}
C on September 13, 1922.

a. What is that temperature in Fahrenheit?

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b. What is that
temperature in Kelvin?

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2. Vostok station in ^{o}F.

a. What is that
temperature in ^{o}C?

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b. What is that temperature in Kelvin?

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__Part 3: Percent: - way of expressing a
fraction__

Fraction
= part/whole

Percent
= fraction(100)

Note,
the some of the parts = the whole

(sum of fractions = 1 sum of percents = 100)

What
is the percent salt if 23.5 g of salt is mixed with 91 g water?

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What
is the percent water if 23.5 g of salt is mixed with 91 g water?

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Note, there are two ways as
we already know % salt, be BE CAREFUL of Sig Figs.

Whole - % salt = % water

100% - 20.5% = 79.5%

(exact) (meas)

This
second way is considered wrong

What mass of Water do you
need to add to 55.4g of salt to make a solution that is 15.0% Salt?

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Problems:

1. What is the mass
of water in a solution which is 34.5% water and has 23.6g salt?

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2. What is the mass
of water in a solution which is 34.5% salt and has 23.6g salt?

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3. What is the mass
of salt in a solution which is 34.5% water and has 23.6g water?

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4. What is the mass
of salt in a solution which is 34.5% salt and has 23.6g water?

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