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Citation Guides

Citation Guides

How to give credit where credit is due
Citation guidelines

When writing a paper that involves consulting and/or quoting another author’s ideas, it is necessary to properly cite that person’s work. Depending on the field of study, there are different style manuals in use. Please ask your professor which style manual is appropriate for his/.her class and be aware that different professers may require different manuals. Ottenheimer Library’s Reference Department has paper copies of all the major style manuals and has compiled two lists of web sites which provide assistance with using style manuals. Consult the web pages below for additional assistance:

Style Guides -

Internet Reference Resources – select the sub-category of Style Manuals -

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Web sites

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Information Ethics Tutorial

Designed as a self-paced presentation, the Information Ethics Tutorial addresses plagiarism, fair use, and other aspect of copyright. While the quizzes are restricted to UNC –Chapel Hill students only, the remainder of the content is well done and beneficial to all students.

New media, new rights, and your new dissertation.

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Journal articles

Besek, June M. “Copyright: What Makes a Use “Fair”?” Educause Review, 38 (November/December 2003): 12-13.

Fair use has long been one of the most frustrating parts of the copyright law. As Besek says, “the ambiguity of the fair use doctrine is also its strength, because if allows courts to apply fair sue to new and sometimes completely unanticipated uses of copyrighted works.” (page 12) Fair use has no black and white definition and while there are 4 factors to be considered each time fair use is addressed, the outcome can differ for two similar cases, as her examples show.

Can be accessed at

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Fishman, Stephen. The Copyright Handbook: How to Protect & Use Written Works. Berkeley, CA: Nolo, 2003.

If you only have time to read one book on copyright at the moment, this is probably the one. Starting with a chapter on how to use the book, the author then expands into individual chapters on how to protect your own creative works and what procedures to follow if you wish to make use of someone else’s work. And “work” is very broadly defined and addressed. Issues of confusion in the electronic era are addressed in addition to traditional publishing formats. A CD-ROM is included providing interactive copies of the forms and letters provided in Appendix II.

UALR Ottenheimer Library owns this book:
4th Floor KF 2995 .F53 2003.

Fishman, Stephen. The Public Domain: How to Find & Use Copyright-free Writings, Music, Art & More. Berkeley, CA: Nolo, 2004.

Copyright laws do not protect all creative works forever. Eventually, materials enter the public domain. But even there, the rules are not simple black and white definitions . Over the course of 23 chapters, detailed information is provided on how to determine if a work is in the public domain and how you are allowed to use it. Movies and television, music, art and computer software all are addressed in their own chapters.

UALR Ottenheimer Library owns this book:
4th Floor KF 3022 .Z9 F57 2004.

Lipson, Charles. Doing Honest Work in College: How to Prepare Citations, Avoid Plagiarism, and Achieve Real Academic Success. Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Part one of Lipson’s book provides the principles of academic honestly, tips on how to do honest work in all parts of every class, and a detailed explanation of what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid it. Part two of the book provides brief tips on how to correctly cite sources in numerous styles, including Chicago, MLA, and APA, as well as the lesser know formats used in math and the sciences. Highlighted tips and examples are provided throughout the book.

UALR Ottenheimer Library owns this book:
4th Floor PN 171 .F56 L 56 2004

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RefWorks is an online bibliographic management tool which enables you to automatically format a bibliography for your paper according to the APA, MLA, Chicago, etc. style manuals or even in accord with the exceptional formats specified by the editors of some journals.

Whether you are writing a brief article or a lengthy book, RefWorks will put an end to that tedious and time-consuming process of getting your bibliography just right. RefWorks formats according to your chosen style manual all of the following materials: books, journal articles, magazine articles, newspaper articles, government documents, audiovisual materials, microforms, electronic books and documents.

To create an account, simply click on RefWorks ( ), which is located about halfway down the “Research Tools” page ( ) on the Ottenheimer Library web page. Enter the group code *. Next, create a user name and password for yourself.

* To obtain the group code, submit a request through the Ask a Reference Librarian ( ) link on the library web page. Please provide your UALR e-mail address. Due to contractual restrictions, the Reference Department cannot provide the group code over the telephone.

For detailed assistance, please contact Dr. Brent Nelson at 569-8807 or

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Remember that copyright is an area where there is still much ambiguity. Future legislation and court decisions will continue to shape copyright law. Information provided on this website should not be construed as legal advice.